Fantasy Encyclopedia Updates: Q to T


QUESTS The Divine Comedy should be dated (1472).


RACKHAM, ARTHUR The Allies' Fairy Book is an original publication, and thus its publication date should be given in bold: 1916. The publication date of Where the Blue Begins (1925) by Christopher MORLEY should not be given in bold; the novel was first published in 1922.

To Further reading add Arthur Rackham: A Biography (1990) by James Hamilton, which is heavily illustrated.

RAMUZ, C.F. For "Mal" read "Malin". The translation The End of All Men was first in the USA, not the UK.

RANSOME, ARTHUR For "he edited (c1908) a series of selections from taletellers including . . ." read "he edited the 12-volume The World's Story-Tellers (1908-1909); of the 12 authors given individual volumes, those of fantasy interest included . . .".

RASMUSSEN, ALIS A. What is here described as the Sword of Heaven series is in fact the Books of the Jaran series, whose Sword of Heaven subseries comprises An Earthly Crown (1993) and His Conquering Sword (1993).

RATIONALIZED FANTASY The first book publication of Three Hearts and Three Lions was in 1961, not 1953. "Magic, Inc." was first published (as "The Devil Makes the Law") in 1940, not 1950.

RAWN, MELANIE Born 1954. In the second paragraph, for "gold ore" read "gold". In the Dragonstar sequence Rohan becomes a High Prince, not a High King, and there is no use of cold iron by the barbarians.

REAL BOY For "The Adventures of Pinocchio" read "Pinocchio". A useful cross-reference is to DUCKTALES: THE MOVIE – TREASURE OF THE LOST LAMP (1990), whose Genie is a classic RB.

RECURSIVE FANTASY For "Hamlet (1603)" read "Hamlet (performed c1600; 1603)". Inferno was published in 1975, not 1976.

REEVE, CLARA For "redemptive (>> REDEMPTION)" read "redemptive contemplation (>> REDEMPTION)".

REINCARNATION To say that reincarnation is "particularly associated with Buddhism" is inaccurate: it is particularly associated with Hinduism, whence Buddhism adopted the notion. For "in terms of of karmic penalty" read "in terms of karmic penalty".

The following entry was omitted from the first printing:

REMIZOV, ALEXEI (1877-1957) Russian author of two fantasy collections, With the Sun (coll 1907) and Zvenigorod Revealed (coll 1910). Additionally, he published TWICE-TOLD Russian FAIRYTALES, legends about saints and medieval folklore. Remizov's books are written in a very strange language – melodious and bizarre at the same time. [CMK]

See also: RUSSIA (entry in Addenda).

REPOSSESSED Owing to a production error, the discussion of this movie was omitted from the entry on The EXORCIST. It is an often funny, often not, PARODY of the first movie in the series and stars Linda Blair.

RETURN OF JAFAR, THE (1994) This was not a tvm but a direct-to-video release. Fuller credits are: Dan Castellaneta (Genie), Jonathan Freeman (Jafar), Gilbert Gottfried (Iago), Linda Larkin (Jasmine speaking), Brad Kane (Aladdin singing), Scott Weinger (Aladdin speaking), Frank Welker (Abu).

RICE, ANNE AR's first story was "October 4, 1948" (1965), published in a college magazine, Transfer. It has hints of the supernatural.

RIDDLES The first book publication of Three Hearts and Three Lions was in 1961, not 1953.

RIVERS Through the Looking-Glass was published in 1871, not 1872.

"ROAD TO" MOVIES Road to Hong Kong was released in 1962, not 1961.

ROBERTS, KEITH Died 2000. For "Richard COWPER (1926- )" read " Richard Cowper (real name John Middleton Murry; 1926-2002)". A Heron Caught in Weeds was published simultaneously with The Road to Paradise: both should have the same publication date, 1988.

ROBIN GOODFELLOW A Midsummer Night's Dream was first performed c1595, not 1596.

ROBIN HOOD The book by Jennifer ROBERSON is titled The Lady of the Forest, not The Lady of the Greenwood.

ROBINSON, CHARLES A Child's Garden of Verses was first published in 1885, not 1895.

ROCK VIDEOS For "and The Rolling Stones' 'Love is Strong' (1994)" read "and The Rolling Stones' 'Love is Strong' (1994) shows band members as GIANTS, lumbering through New York".

ROD SERLING'S NIGHT GALLERY The series ran 1970-73, and there were 47 episodes, not 42.


ROMANCE For "Le Morte D'Arthur (1470)" read "Le Morte Darthur (1585)". For "Orlando Furioso (1532)" read "Orlando Furioso (1516)". For "CHRETIAN DE TROYES's Lancelot (c1177-81)" read "CHRETIAN DE TROYES's Lancelot (?1177)".

ROSEMARY'S BABY (1968) For "claustrophically" read "claustrophobically".

ROSY CROSS Christian ROSENCREUTZ is a fictitious writer of the 15th, not the 17th, century.

ROSZAK, THEODORE "The Heart of Darkness" is a novella, not a novel.

RUFF, MATT For "Tolkein" read "Tolkien".

RUPERT THE BEAR It should be noted that, about 1983, Paul McCartney bought the rights to make Rupert cartoons and issued the single "We All Stand Together" to popularize the first in the series. Bad cross-reference to Albert BESTALL.

RUSCH, KRISTINE KATHRYN For "Matthew B. Brady" read "Mathew B. Brady". KKR maintains that her only sf novel is Alien Influences (1994 UK). She has received a WORLD FANTASY AWARD (1989) for Pulphouse and a Hugo AWARD (1994) as editor of The MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION.

RUSSELL, KEN Women in Love was released in 1970, not 1969.

The following entry was omitted from the first printing:

RUSSIA Fantasy as a literary genre had its origins in the FAIRYTALE, or folklore. Russian fantasy is no exception; it has grown from Russian – more precisely Slavonic – folklore. Such tales as "The Tale of Bova a King's Son" (16th century), "The Tale of the Sorrow" (17th century) and "The Tale of the Golden Tree and the Golden Parrot" (17th century) laid the foundations for Russian fantasy. But the road from folklore to literature was quite a long one. Only near the end of the 18th century, under the impact of the French literary fairytale (as written by Charles PERRAULT and others), did the first Russian fantasy writers appear – Vasily LEVSHIN (entry in Addenda), with The Russian Tales (coll 1780-83) and The Night Hours (coll 1787-88), Mikhail Popov (1742-1790) with The Ancient Wonders (1785) and Mikhail TCHULKOV (entry in Addenda) with The Mocker (coll 1765) and The Concise Mythological Lexicon (1767). All these books were very popular, being reprinted many times, but failed to arouse significant public interest in fantasy as a whole.

This interest was eventually sparked by Romanticism. Inspired by Johann W. GOETHE's Faust (1808-32) and by the works of E.T.A. HOFFMANN and other German romantics, the Russian Romantics – including Alexander Bestuzhev-Marlinsky (1797-1837), Wilhelm Kuchelbecker (1797-1846), Vladimir Odoevsky (1803-1869) and Antoni Pogorelsky or Perovski (1787-1830) – began to use fantasy motifs widely, though these motifs were not pivotal to their work. It is fair to say that Russian fantasy of that time was imitative; often of Hoffmann, but with Russian colour. The main subject of almost all these books was the opposition of the Romantic ideal to mundane life. Examples include various fantasies by Odoevsky and Adventures Taken from the Worldly Sea (1846) by Alexander Weltman (1800-1870).

The two lines of fantasy development – folkloristic and Romantic – progressed in parallel but separate for some time. Even the famous Russian poet Alexander Pushkin (1800-1837) could not combine them in his work. However, there is an anonymous novelette, "A Lonely House on Vasilievsky Island", which some specialists think was written by him. In it one can find the germ of fantasy as we now understand it. Besides this, Pushkin wrote a poem, "Rouslan and Ludmila" based on part of Levshin's The Russian Tales; it belongs fully to the folklore line of fantasy, as do some other minor verses.

The real blending of the two lines was achieved by Nikolai GOGOL. Gogol combined the folklore heritage with Hoffmann's mystique, a confluence easily seen in such works as "The Night before St John's" (1830), "The May Night, or the Drowned Woman" (1831), or "Wiy" (1835). Moreover, Gogol was the first SCIENCE FANTASY author in Russia, as demonstrated by several of the stories published in Arabesques (coll 1835), such as "The Portrait" (1835); "The Overcoat" (1842) is a further example. The hero of "The Nose" (1835) loses his nose, which begins to live its own life: it makes a promising career, outstripping its one-time owner.

Unfortunately, Gogol's syncretism passed practically unnoticed. With the exception of Alexei Tolstoy (1817-1875), with "The Vampire" (1841), fantasy authors again divided into folklorists and Romantics. But, with the death of Romanticism as a whole, Romantic fantasy gradually disappeared, while folkloric fantasy rapidly increased in importance – due largely to the fact that, towards the end of the 19th century, Russian anthropology began to develop swiftly.

At the beginning of the 20th century Alexei REMIZOV (entry in Addenda) released two collections of short stories – With the Sun (coll 1907) and Zvenigorod Revealed (coll 1910). These stories are quite original and abound with folklore. The same could be said of the poems of Vladimir Narbut (1888-1938), who was both a poet and anthropologist; his most interesting poetry was assembled in Hallelujah! (coll 1912) and Wiy (coll 1915). The distinguishing features of these poems are psychological depth and an extremely rich fantasy milieu.

A little later, Gogol's syncretism was reborn in the works of Fyodor Sologub (1863-1927) (>> SFE) and Mikhail BULGAKOV. Alexander KONDRATIEV (entry in Addenda) combined folklore motifs with an interest in the demonic side of fantasy. During this same period, the early part of this century, a new mystic line of Russian fantasy became evident. It is represented by the works of Leonid Andreyev (1871-1919) (>> SFE), Valery Bryusov (1873-1924), Zinaida Gippius (1869-1945), Dmitri Erezhkovski (1865-1941) and some others. Among further fantasy writers of the period Alexander GRIN (entry in Addenda) is outstanding.

In the former USSR – where fantasy as a genre was strictly prohibited – some writers disguised their work as SCIENCE FICTION and others turned to CHILDREN'S FANTASY. Juvenile fantasy books passed by the censors, who could not see the difference between fantasy written ostensibly for children and literary fairytales (>>>> AESOPIAN FANTASY). So fantasies such as those by Veniamin Kaverin and Pavel Bazhov – The Malachite Box (1939 – appeared.

Modern Russian fantasy, in spite of a rich literary tradition, is only at the developmental stage. Until recently, official ideology forbade anything that could not be seen to increase "the morale of the builders of communism". In a properly functioning materialistic and atheistic society, there could be no place for demons, wizards, goblins and so on. During the Soviet era, only two books for adults were published that could properly be considered fantasies – Danilov the Viola Player (1980) by Vladimir Orlov (1936- ) and Monday Begins on Saturday (1965) by Arkady and Boris STRUGATSKI (entry in Addenda). Orlov's novel takes the reader back to Hoffmann, and Monday Begins on Saturday ("a fairy-tale for junior scientists", as the authors put it) is a fantasy disguised as a comic novel. Even today young writers are inclined to naturalism, or primitivism combined with horror, or to political satire. As the sf and fantasy author Kir Bulychev (1934- ) (>> SFE) said: "In Russian literature a dragon will be associated for sure with a house-manager or a general – or with a person much higher in rank . . ."

These words precisely characterize the present situation in Russian fantasy. And there is another problem – the imitation of non-Russian genre fantasy. Most often the template is the work of J.R.R. TOLKIEN, whose books are very popular in Russia in spite of the fact that they were translated and published only after a great delay; as examples of such imitations one could take the books of Nikolai ("Nick") Perumov, like The Ring of Darkness (1994), a "free sequel" to The Lord of the Rings, and The Tales of Hjorvard (1995). These are imitations done on a commercial basis; and Perumov is not alone in this business.

It is to be hoped that, now the ideological barriers are down, sooner or later Russian fantasy will take its place on the world stage. Preconditions for this are at hand. [CMK]


SABERHAGEN, FRED Dominion is set in Chicago, not New York.

SAN SOUCI, ROBERT D. RSS is US, not Canadian. He has published many more fantasies for younger readers than are listed here.

SAN FRANCISCO For "and it and" read "it and".

SANJULIAN, MANUEL PEREZ For "iconic status of icons" read "iconic status".

SANSKRIT LITERATURE For "Harold Bloom" read "Harold BLOOM".

SARBAN "The Khan" is collected in Ringstones (coll 1951), not The Doll Maker (coll 1953); its heroine is Norwegian, not English.

SATIRE Gulliver's Travels appeared in 1726, not 1626.

SCHWEITZER, DARRELL DS started editing Weird Tales in 1987, not 1977. For "Non Compos Mentis" read "Non Compost Mentis".

SCRYING A further relevant reference is to the Wicked Witch's crystal ball in The WIZARD OF OZ (1939).

SECRET GUARDIANS Anno Dracula was published in 1992, not 1993.

SENDAK, MAURICE Further relevant titles include the important We Are All in the Dumps with Jack and Guy (graph 1993), which conflates WORLD WAR II and FAIRYTALE. To Other works illustrated add a further title derived from the Grimm Brothers: Dear Mili (trans Ralph Manheim 1988 chap).


SERLING, ROD To Other works add Patterns: Four Television Plays (coll 1955) and Requiem for a Heavyweight (coll 1962), both collecting screenplays. In terms of movie work, there are other items of fantasy interest, especially the "United Nations Special" A Carol for Another Christmas (1964) and Rod Serling's Lost Classics (1994 tvm), featuring a screenplay by RS and an RS story adapted by Richard MATHESON. One episode of the revived TWILIGHT ZONE was based on an RS story, scripted by J. Michael Straczynski. Add:

Further reading: The Twilight Zone Companion (1986) by Marc Scott Zicree; Rod Serling: The Dreams and Nightmares of Life in the Twilight Zone (1989) by Joel Engel; Serling: The Rise and Twilight of Television's Last Angry Man (1992) by Gordon F. Sander; Into the Twilight Zone: The Rod Serling Programme Guide (1995) by Jean-Marc and Randy Lofficier.

SEUSS, DR DS was almost as famous for his drawings as for his verse. Each book listed should properly be designated "graph". The full title of his first book is And to Think That I Saw It on Mulberry Street (graph 1937). The 500 Hats of Bartholomew Cubbins was published in 1937, not 1938. For "Horton Hears a Who" read "Horton Hears a Who!" and for "How the Grinch Stole Christmas" read "How the Grinch Stole Christmas!". For "Marvin K. Mooney, Will You Please Go Now!" read "Marvin K. Mooney Will You Please Go Now!" (no comma).

SHAKESPEARE, WILLIAM Shakespeare's Planet was published in 1976, not 1968, and does not feature the historical Shakespeare. In a 1963 TWILIGHT ZONE episode called "The Bard" WS is summoned to the present to help a tv writer with his scripts. Insert, between "wide intervals." and "In each a HEALING", at the end of the second full paragraph on page 857, the following:

In each, the STORY, which may be elaborate and full of coincidences, is so conspicuously foregrounded that each drama's fairytale protagonists seem precisely to be acting out a "Winter's Tale" – seem in other words to be re-enacting a profound yarn whose underlying, prior truth is undeniable, despite its implausibilties. Each play has been constructed to climax in the moments of RECOGNITION for which each is famous, moments through which remarkably complex labyrinths of story are successfully brought to book, and the true nature of the world and its coils is revealed ("O she's warm", as Leontes utters, awestruck, on recognizing that his long-dead wife is alive, and that his foul jealousy has been enfolded in a larger story).

SHAW, GEORGE BERNARD To the reference to Man and Superman should be added: "The specifically supernatural act of the play was published separately as Don Juan in Hell (1951 US)."

SHE Replace first sentence with the following: There were seven silent movies based on H. Rider HAGGARD's She: A History of Adventure (1886), the last being She (1925), dir G.B. Samuelson and starring Betty Blythe. In addition, there have been two movies based directly upon the novel, however loosely, and one extending it (all three discussed below). Of related relevance is the very violent, semi-pornographic, post-APOCALYPSE Italian sf movie She (1985), dir Avi Nesher and starring Sandahl Bergman in the title role as the leader of a nation in which women have enslaved men. S.H.E. (1979), dir Robert Lewis and starring Cornelia Sharpe, tips a hat to Haggard but is in fact a sub-Bond spy caper, Sharpe being codenamed S.H.E. [JG]

SHELLEY, MARY Fuller ascription: Child of Light: A Reassessment of Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley (1951; rev vt Mary Shelley: A Biography 1987). To Further reading add: Mary Shelley: Romance and Reality (1988) by Emily W. Sunstein; Mary Shelley: Her Life, Her Fiction, Her Monsters (1988) by Anne K. Mellor. "The Invisible Girl" (1832) is probably in fact not by MS.

SHEPARD, LUCIUS For "]R&R" read "R&R".

SHERLOCK HOLMES For "Loch Ness Moster" read "Loch Ness Monster". It should be noted that SH has featured extensively on stage and on both large and small screens.

SIM, DAVE DS is Canadian, not US.

SIMMONS, DAN For "The Song of Kali" read "Song of Kali".

SKINNED The first book publication of Three Hearts and Three Lions was in 1961, not 1953.

SMALL PRESSES For "Far Lands, Other Days" read "Far Lands Other Days". For "Lucis SHEPARD" read "Lucius SHEPARD". For Murgunstruum and Others read Murgunstrumm and Others.

SNOW WHITE AND THE SEVEN DWARFS Mention should be made of the (non-Disney) animated sequel: Happily Ever After (1993).

SOCIETY FOR CREATIVE ANACHRONISM The SCA also figures prominently in Esther M. FRIESNER's Demon Blues (1989).

SOMTOW, S.P. The Fallen Country was published as by Sucharitkul while Forgetting Places was published as by Somtow. The third volume of the Riverrun trilogy finally appeared in Riverrun Trilogy (omni 1996), where it was titled "Yestern", not "Music of Madness". Both the Chronicles of the High Inquest series and the Aquiliad series are of greater fantasy interest than is implied here.

SONG A further title of relevance is John Myers MYERS's Silverlock (1949).

SOUTHEY, ROBERT For "thought for time" read "thought for a time". Better ascription: Amadis of Gaul (cut trans of Amads de Gaula 1508 vols 1-4 by García Ordez de Montalvo; 1803 4 vols) as by Vasco Lobeira.

It should be noted that Southey's translation – which is an abridgement of the first four (of over 20 canonical) volumes – has led some modern scholars to underestimate the influence of Amadis de Gaule (the normal title, from the French) on Sir Philip Sidney (1554-1586), Edmund SPENSER and others. This is perhaps understandable in that the full text is hard to come by today: it was widely available (and very widely read) in the 16th century, and writers like those cited were influenced by the whole.

SPELLS For "David GEMMEL" read "David GEMMELL". For "Collin Webber" read "Collin WEBBER". For "dialled" read "dialed".

SPENSER, EDMUND In the second reference, for "The Shephearde's Calendar" read "The Shephearde's Calender". Add:

Further reading: The standard edition of ES's complete works has long been Poetical Works (1912) ed J.C. Smith and Ernest De Selincourt. The critical literature on ES is vast; a good starting point is The Spenser Encyclopedia (1990) gen ed A.C. Hamilton. One fondly remembered critical study is Kathleen Williams's Spenser's World of Glass: A Reading of The Faerie Queene (1966).

SPIELBERG, STEVEN "Eyes" was not an episode of ROD SERLING'S NIGHT GALLERY but a segment of the pilot; SS did direct one episode of the series, "Make Me Laugh" (1971). For "The Psychiatrists" read "The Psychiatrist". SS directed one segment of Twilight Zone: The Movie: "Kick the Can".

SPRING-HEELED JACK A further relevant title is Peter HAINING's The Legend and Bizarre Crimes of Spring Heeled Jack (1977).

SPRINGER, NANCY Stardark Songs (coll 1993) is mostly fantasy poetry.

STARRETT, VINCENT For "collecters" read "collectors".

STASHEFF, CHRISTOPHER King Kobold was first published in 1971, not 1969. A further relevant title is The Exotic Enchanter (anth 1995) edited with L. Sprague DE CAMP. The Wizard in Rhyme series cannot entirely be described as "extremely similar" as it deals extensively with Roman Catholic theology.

STEADMAN, RALPH Further relevant titles, over and above books written for children, are Cherrywood Canyon (graph 1978) and Tales of the Weirrd {{SETTER PLEASE NOTE: Weirrd}} (graph 1990).

STEAMPUNK For "Morlock Nights" read "Morlock Night". For "Armageddon" read "ARMAGEDDON".

STEVENSON, ROBERT LOUIS Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was published in 1886, not 1888.

STEVERMER, CAROLINE For "Sorcery & Cecilia" read "Sorcery and Cecelia". For "A College of Magicks" read "A College of Magics".

STORY Credit to GW should be to GKW. For "explain thing" read "explain things".

STRAUB, PETER Peter Straub's Ghosts is an anthology, not a collection.

The following entry was omitted from the first printing:

STRUGATSKY, ARKADY (NATANOVICH) (1925-1993) and BORIS (NATANOVICH) (1933- ) Russian writers who always worked together; the brothers were the best-known Russian sf writers outside the former USSR. In some of their books appear demonic beings from the other side of the world, and these beings determine the destinies of people. But the Strugatskies wrote very little pure fantasy – almost certainly in part because Soviet ideology frowned on fantasy. Their only pure fantasy is Pomedel'nik nachinaetsia v subbotu (1965; trans Leonid Renen as Monday Begins on Saturday 1977 US); it lies somewhere between satire and FAIRYTALE. Darko Suvin has described it as a "loose picaresque work ranging from fabulistic fun to the Goyaesque horrors of charlatanism and bureaucratic power". It was filmed as The Magicians (1988). [CMK]

See also: RUSSIA (entry in Addenda).

SUE, EUGENE Working name of Marie-Joseph Sue. The ascription of The Wandering Jew's translation should read "1844-5 UK".

SUPERHERO TEAMS It is incorrect to assert that "it is unusual for any team to last long", since several have survived for decades.

SUPERMAN Wayne Boring did not only work on the newspaper strip: during the 1950s he was the standard illustrator of the comic books. The fifth-dimensional imp introduced in the 1940s was named Mr. Mxyztplk; later, his name was changed to Mr. Mxyzptlk, which is now the standard spelling.

Due to production errors the entry fails to mention the iconic figures of Jimmy Olsen and Perry White as well as S's extensively chronicled adventures as Superboy, his longstanding partnership with Batman, and his increasingly important membership in the Justice League.

SUPERMAN MOVIES Clayton Collyer became more famous as Bud Collier. For "Magin" read "Maggin"; Maggin's Superman – Last Son of Krypton is not a true novelization of the movie, although it was published as such.

SUPERNATURAL FICTION Melmoth the Wanderer was published in 1820, not 1920.

SURREALISM Credit to GW should be to GKW.

SWAMP THING For "Wes Craven" read "Wes CRAVEN". The director of Return of the Swamp Thing was Jim Wynorski.

SWANN, THOMAS BURNETT For "The Blue Monkey" read "The Blue Monkeys".

SWORD AND SORCERESS For "Jennifer Roberson" read "Jennifer ROBERSON". C.J. CHERRYH has not contributed to the series.

SWORDS The Dark World was published in book form in 1965, not 1946.

SYMBOL Credit to GW should be to GKW.


TALES FROM THE CRYPT Mention should be made of the movie Tales from the Crypt (1972) and of the long-running 1980s tv series.

TARZAN Fritz LEIBER's Tarzan and the Valley of Gold was published in 1966, not 1976. Tarzan is the opposite of "the ultimate barbarian, entirely lacking in academic education but instead educated by his closeness to nature". The importance of Tarzan to Philip Jose FARMER's Wold Newton sequence is considerably understated. Gil Kane died 2000. John Buscema died 2002.

TARZAN MOVIES In 42, for "Michelle Nicols" read "Nichelle Nichols". In 48, Tarzan and Boy was released c1965, not c1955, and (it is claimed) had the vt Tarzan and Jane and Boy and Cheeta.

TAYLOR, KEITH For "solo" read "singleton".

The following entry was omitted from the first printing:

TCHULKOV, MIKHAIL (1734-1792) Russian writer whose The Mocker (first two parts as coll 1765) is the first Russian fantasy collection. Further works, some anthropological, include The Concise Mythological Lexicon (1767) and A Dictionary of Russian Superstitions (1767-87). It could be said that he, along with the more talented writer Vasily LEVSHIN (entry in Addenda), created Russian fantasy as a genre. [CMK]

See also: RUSSIA (entry in Addenda).

TECHNOFANTASY Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was published in 1886, not 1888.

TEENAGE MUTANT NINJA TURTLES MOVIES The US release of Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles 3 bore no subtitle.

TEEN WOLF There was a short-lived tv spinoff series.

TELEVISION The omission of an entry on television will be corrected in future editions. There was no intent to slight the medium and its importance to fantasy, but there was a sense that there was little to say about fantasy on television collectively. That is, until recently, fantasy tv series almost universally fell into a few distinct, and highly disparate, categories: situation comedies which added a being with magical powers to an otherwise conventional domestic setting (BEWITCHED, I DREAM OF JEANNIE, The GIRL WITH SOMETHING EXTRA, MISTER ED); anthology series which blended, to varying extents, fantasy, science fiction, and horror (ROD SERLING'S NIGHT GALLERY, The TWILIGHT ZONE); innumerable animated series, and occasional live-action series with puppet figures, designed exclusively for children; and, rarely, series which strikingly and surrealistically blended fantasy and realism (The AVENGERS, TWIN PEAKS). Possible exceptions with entries in this volume include The MASTER and WIZARDS AND WARRIORS. Only recently have there emerged a significant number of popular series in the mainstream genre fantasy, beginning with Hercules: The Legendary Journeys and now including Xena, Warrior Princess, Sinbad, Conan and Tarzan: The Epic Adventures, which will have separate entries in future editions. [GW/DRL]

TENNIEL, [Sir] JOHN For "Alice in Wonderland" read "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland".

TERMINATOR 2: JUDGMENT DAY Entry head should be spelt thus.

THEATRE The omission of an entry on theatre stemmed, in part, from the impossible breadth of the topic; for, by reasonable argument, virtually all drama for the stage is a form of fantasy. Certainly, ever since the earliest Greek dramas featuring mythological gods and heroes, magical events and beings have repeatedly figured in theatrical presentations (>> William SHAKESPEARE). More broadly, however, except for a short-lived movement in 19th-century theatre to achieve perfect (and often spectacular) realism on the stage, virtually all stage productions incorporate arguably fantastic elements in their presentation – conventions such as invisible walls and asides to the audience, characters bursting into song, visibly incomplete sets, persons distant in space and/or time juxtaposed on stage, and so on. Indeed, in the 20th century, responding to the challenge of cinema, many dramatists – e.g., Luigi PIRANDELLO, Eugène IONESCO, Samuel BECKETT – placed increasing emphasis on the uniquely unrealistic aspects of theatre (>> ABSURDIST FANTASY). Plays featuring music often foreground fantastic elements, as shown by various works listed under OPERA. [GW]

THEOSOPHY For "Nor is it insignificant that Robert E. HOWARD both" read "Nor is it insignificant that Robert E. HOWARD and Clark Ashton SMITH both". This entry was heavily cut in production; the following text should appear after the first paragraph:

In Isis Revealed, Blavatsky concentrates, rather unoriginally, on ancient EGYPT; it is in The Secret Doctrine that the full intoxicating complexity of her system is revealed. In presenting that system, we follow the numbered elucidation provided by David Morris in The Masks of Lucifer: Technology and the Occult in Twentieth-Century Popular Literature (1992):

1. As in much of the occult tradition, a Great Architect of the Universe underlies the created world, but does not operate directly upon it. 2. That world is an AGON, both spatially (for GOOD and EVIL are contraries in constant conflict) and temporally (for – as in The Worm Ouroboros [1922] by E.R. EDDISON – the conflict recurs and recurs in a great CYCLE, though on different levels). "The war of the Titans,"" Blavatsky says, "is but a legendary and defilied copy of the real war that took place in the Himalayan Kailas (heaven) instead of in the depths of Cosmic interplanetary space."" 3. The universe (like almost every secondary world to come) is animate: "This cosmic dust,"" she says, "is something more; for every atom in the Universe has the potentiality of self consciousness in it; IT IS AN ATOM AND AN ANGEL."" An author like John CROWLEY need not, in other words, bother to trace this notion back to its Gnostic roots (>> GNOSTIC FANTASY): it is available here. 4. Each soul is complexly connected to a Universal Oversoul. 5. Governed by the Law of Karma, each soul progresses through a cycle of REINCARNATIONS. 6. This refutes Darwin. 7. Each soul passes through 7 (>> SEVEN) rounds of reincarnation, and on each round traverses the 7 planets, there being life forms on each planet. 8. On Earth, each reincarnation represents a progress into greater corporeality and higher consciousness. 9. Each of the 7 rounds take place in an Age, and each Age has a "root-race"" whose nature is inescapable (>> THEODICY). In the First Age, humanity lived on a continent called "The Imperishable Sacred Land"" and looked like astral jellyfish. In the Second Age, we lived in the polar continent of HYPERBOREA (the name was later appropriated by Clark Ashton SMITH who set a series there). In the Third Age we were HERMAPHRODITES in LEMURIA (where Lin Carter set his Thongor sequence); in the Fourth we were GIANTS in ATLANTIS. The Fifth Age is now. Each root-race is, moreover, divided into 7 races, the 7th of each representing the seed (>> PARIAH ELITE) of the next root-race. The Negroid hermaphrodites of Lemuria have left as fossils on Earth the Negroes and some other Black races (it is here that T works as a justification for racism and imperialism, because the Lemurians are lower than us in the cycle; and as a generator of the "philosophical"" background of many LOST RACE/WORLD tales). The 7th subrace of the giant Mongoloids from Atlantis are the Semites, who bear the seed of the White man today. 10. The portrait of humanity's long evolution through the cycles incorporates the knowledge that humanity, having been created by a Superior Being, pre-exists other forms of life on Earth; and that the holocausts which end each cycle happen because humans err and sin – i.e., they are caused by the subsequent karmic disturbance. 11. All SOULS are equal, but some souls are more equal than others: ours. 12. SATAN is the PROMETHEUS figure who helps humanity, the SERPENT in the GARDEN who brings us light. 13. Jehovah is an important ANGEL, but fatally opposed to the bringing of the light. 14. CHRIST was an adept, one of several, and his teachings were occult – i.e., intended for the elect.

THOMAS, ROY John Buscema died 2002.

THOMPSON, PAUL B. Born 1958, not 1951. The historian Paul B. Thompson was born in 1951 – hence the confusion.

TIME IN FAERIE Three Hearts and Three Lions was published in 1961, not 1953. In the Land of Youth was published in 1924, not 1954. Mary Rose was (performed 1920; 1924).

TINTIN Right-wing views or not, Hergé was no collaborationist; our statement that he was accused of so being is correct but has been misread. "King Ottakar's Scepter" explicitly attacks the Nazis.

Delete the comment about the "Tin-Tin" spelling, which is misguided; accordingly, for "Tin-Tin et les Picaros" read "Tintin et les Picaros". We cannot trace the origins of the sentence beginning "The series is undistinguished . . ."

TODD, BARBARA EUPHAN The US revision of her first two books should properly be titled Worzel Gummidge: The Scarecrow of Scatterbrook Farm. It was published as by Barbara Bower.

TODOROV, TZVETAN Towards the end of the entry, for "uncanny" read "UNCANNY".

TOLKIEN, J.R.R. The running heads on pages 953 and 954 should read "TOLKIEN, J(OHN) R(ONALD) R(EUEL)", not "LOTR".

TOPPER MOVIES The MAN WHO COULD WORK MIRACLES was released in 1936, not 1946.

TRAINS A further relevant title is "The Last Stage Coachman" (1843) by Wilkie COLLINS. For "'A Stop in Willoughby' (1961)" read "'A Stop in Willoughby' (The Twilight Zone 1960)".

TRAVELLERS' TALES Yesterday We Saw Mermaids was published in 1992, not 1991.

TREECE, HENRY According to K.V. Bailey, a close friend of the Treeces who attended the funeral, HT had a coronary and died in hospital: there was no inquest. Our remark concerning HT's suicide would thus seem to repeat a popular myth.

A further title of note is The Magic Wood (graph 1992 US) illus Barry Moser; this is Moser's version of HT's poem "The Magic Wood", from The Black Seasons (coll 1945).

TRIAL, THE For "Alice in Wonderland" read "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland".

TRICKSTER Wil E. Coyote is properly Wile E. Coyote. The entry on Chuck JONES appears in the Addenda, not the main text. A better range of examples than Davy Crockett and Mike Fink is Davy Crockett and Pecos Bill.

This entry should mention bird tricksters, especially the trickster element in modern uses of the crow, as in Ted HUGHES's Crow (coll 1970; exp 1972), which is a collection of trickster poems.

TROLLS The first book publication of Three Hearts and Three Lions was in 1961, not 1953.

TROMPE L'OEIL The opening sentence of the second sentence was jumbled during production. It should start: "Some of the most famous TLO tales are those of E.T.A. HOFFMANN . . ."

TRUE NAME The Farthest Shore was published in 1972, not 1973.

TUTTLE, LISA A production error has rendered the dates of LT's stories in bold type.

TWILIGHT ZONE, THE and NEW TWILIGHT ZONE, THE Alan Brennert has noted: (a) The New Twilight Zone is misnamed: it was always called The Twilight Zone. (b) It was not exclusively syndicated, as initial sentence implies: the first 2 seasons were on CBS; only the third season was shot for syndication. (c) Our claim that the show was not thereafter seen is false – it was syndicated for several years, and remains on cable.

For "Susanne Cupito" read "Suzanne Cupito". For "William Demerest" read "William Demarest". For "Robert Serling" read "Robert Sterling". There were 137 half-hour episodes (plus one drawn from another source and forced into the format) 18 hour-long episodes. A number of superior episodes with strong fantasy interest are unmentioned, including "The Hitch-Hiker", "Night of the Meek", "In Praise of Pip", "Twenty-Two" and "The Howling Man". The follow-up tv series was on CBS for the first two seasons, then syndicated for the third season.

The parallelism of the expression "Both made use of episodes of the original television series" is misleading. In Twilight Zone: The Movie three of the four segments were remakes of series scripts, while in the new series only 4 out of over 150 segments derived from original series scripts.

Rod Serling's Lost Classics featured one unproduced SERLING teleplay and one adaptation of an unproduced story scripted by Richard MATHESON; in no sense were they "based on unfinished stories by Serling".

TWIN PEAKS For "wierdness" read "weirdness".

TWINS For "to caused by gods" read "to be caused by gods".