Fantasy Encyclopedia Updates: M to P


McKINLEY, ROBIN For "RK" read "RM".

MacLEISH, ARCHIBALD Scratch should not be indicated as a tie.

MacLEOD, FIONA The Sin-Eater was published in 1895, not 1894. A further relevant title is The Divine Adventure; Fiona: By Sundown Shores: Studies in Spiritual History (coll 1900).

It has been widely claimed that William Sharp invented the forename "Fiona" for his pseudonym, but this is in fact untrue. In Scottish Forenames (1996) Donald Whyte observes that James Macpherson (1736-1796) used "Fiona" as a name in his "Ossian" works (>> CELTIC FANTASY), and anyway the name was in use in real life before then: the Lord of the Isles and his wife Fione [sic] are recorded as having given an endowment to Paisley Abbey, Scotland, c1175.

MACHEN, ARTHUR The House of Souls should be correctly ascribed: (coll 1906). The frontispiece is by S.H. SIME. The book contains a cut version of The Three Impostors plus AM's greatest single story, "The White People". Two further titles should be noted: Ritual and Other Stories (coll 1992; rev 1997), which assembles mostly uncollected early work, and the continuation of The Secret Glory, The Secret Glory: Chapters Five and Six (1991 chap).

McNUTT, CHARLES In fact Charles BEAUMONT's birth-name.

MAGAZINE OF FANTASY AND SCIENCE FICTION, THE For "Buffalo Gals Won't You Come Out Tonight" read "Buffalo Gals, Won't You Come Out Tonight". The Damon Knight special issue (November 1976) was omitted. [The entry on Shirley JACKSON appears in the Addenda, not the main text.]

MAGAZINE OF HORROR, THE Robert A.W. Lowndes lived 1916-1998. Emil Petaja died 2000.

MAGAZINES Cele Goldsmith died 2002.

MAGIC Alice's Adventures in Wonderland was published in 1865, not 1866. The Princess and Curdie was published in 1883, not 1877. For "The Deed of Paksenarian" read "The Deed of Paksenarrion".

MALIGN SLEEPER For "Vernor VINGE" read "Vernor Vinge".

The following entry was in large part omitted from the first printing:

MANGA Japanese term first coined by the artist and teacher Hokusai (1760-1849) to describe the books of sketches and drawings which he produced for the use of his students. Translated as "irresponsible pictures", the term may also be used to refer to cartoons or comic strips, and in this latter meaning has gained currency in the West. In Japan the term gekiga ("drama pictures") is often used to refer to the more serious comic books, as is the hybrid word komikksu.

Cartoons and comic strips first appeared in Japan in the Meiji Era (late 1800s) in the form of single-frame, caricature-like cartoons, which evolved into the four-frame joke strips carried by almost every daily newspaper today. Comics with a storyline appeared before WWII, mostly featuring adventure stories for boys, but it was not until after the war, when Machiko Hasegawa's phenominally popular Sazaesan first appeared, that comics really began to flourish. Sazaesan (the title is the name of a little girl) was a long series of amusing stories about the life of an ordinary family.

The true pioneer of the postwar comic book was Osamu Tezuka (1929-1989), who was the first cartoonist to apply cinematographic techniques to Japanese comics. This led to the advent in the 1960s of the gekiga style, using realistic pictures to tell stories dealing with topics of interest to a wide range of readers, with examples reaching into all areas of Japanese life. Once a substantial adult readership was established, numerous other creators began experimenting with a wide range of styles and techniques, producing not only comics that entertain but also works with considerable artistic and literary merit. Stories deal with a very wide range of subjects, including fantasy, sf, horror, humour, romance, business, economics, sociology, sport, crime, cookery and pornography. A seminal early series was Tezuka's Tetsuwan Atomu ["Atom, the Boy with Arms of Steel"] (from 1952), a humorous sf/fantasy about a robot child, which was the first comic book to be adapted into an animated tv series. Since then, an increasing number of M have been adapted into animated films (called ANIME) employing sometimes highly sophisticated techniques. One particularly popular long-running example which typifies this cross-media aspect of M is the humorous crime series Lupin Sansei ["Lupin the Third"] (from 1984) by a team working under the pseudonym Monkey Punch. Another is Momoko Sakura's semiautobiographical Chibi Marukochan; the title is a little girl's nickname.

M accounts for 30% of the 7.7 billion books sold in Japan today and 10% of the 40,000 new titles published annually. The best selling M titles are those for women, containing touching stories about the lives of odinary women and girls (like Chibi Marukochan) or raunchy, tragic love stories, such as Haiteen Bugi ["High Teen Boogie"] (1981-9), about a motorcycling rock musician, by the husband-and-wife team Kazuko Makino and Yukio Goto.

Many M creators employ a team of art assistants, including specialists in street scenes, architecture, cars, etc., so that the creator himself draws only the main figures; by this means he can produce substantial multivolume series. A prime example of this is Golgo 13 (from 1969; part trans 1985 US) by Takao Saito, an international spy series which at present runs to almost 100 volumes of about 250 pages each. This series claims sales figures of about 80 million.

One of the first examples of M to be translated into English was Hadashi no Gen (1972-3; graph coll 1984; trans as Barefoot Gen 1987 US) by Keiji Nakazawa (1938- ), a story about the Hiroshima atom bomb. Most subsequent works to have been tranlated have had an sf bias; they include Akira (1982-6 and 1988 onwards; trans in 34 vols 1988-92 US) (>> AKIRA [1987]) by Katsuhiro OTOMO, Mai, the Psychic Girl (trans 1987-8 UK) by Kazuya Kudo and Ryoichi Ikegami, which recounts the adventures of a girl with remarkable psychic abilities and the attempts by various agencies to capture and exploit her, and Appleseed (trans 1988-94 US), a hard-sf series. M have gained greater and greater international popularity in the 1990s and this trend looks set to continue, with an increasing number of examples in the crime, sf and fantasy genres (often featuring gutsy, sexy nymphettes) appearing on US newstands. One major factor enhancing their popularity is that they are often published in pocket-sized, squarebound volumes containing a substantial amount of reading matter in the form of novel-length stories.

As English-language M proliferate in both the UK and the USA, a Japanese influence has begun to appear in the indigenous comic book, with interesting examples of a hybrid drawing style becoming increasingly evident. [RT]

Further reading: Manga! Manga!: The World of Japanese Comics (1983 US) by Frederik L. Schodt.

MANKOWITZ, WOLF Died 1998. The Devil in Texas (1984) was illustrated by Ralph STEADMAN.

MAPS Reference should be made to the mapping of Oz (>> L. Frank BAUM). Add:

Further reading: An Atlas of Fantasy (graph anth 1973) ed J.B. Post.


MASKS The Mask of Circe was published in 1971, not 1975. This entry was heavily cut in production; the first sentence should be a full paragraph as follows:

The mask is both a cover for the face and a language that the face speaks. It disguises; it demarcates boundaries; it opens gates of passage; it threatens and celebrates. The study of the multiple functions of masking occupies many disciplines, including ANTHROPOLOGY, art and literary criticism, psychology and sociology; and complex patterns of arguments about the mask's various functions have been accumulated over the centuries. The mask in its multifaceted glory and significance is a central thread in the story of the human species.

MASTER, THE This tv series entry fails to mention any actual fantasy content. According to Wikipedia, there is "a mild paranormal element ... in the form of McAllister's mystical abilities: he can for instance go into a trance state to simulate death or withstand torture; and he seems to have low-level empathic/telepathic abilities ..."

MATHESON, RICHARD This entry understates the importance of RM's writing for the screen. Scripts include: Master of the World (1961), adapted from the novel by Jules Verne; an episode of Thriller; several 1960s horror movies, such as The Comedy of Terrors (1963), Fanatic (1965), Die! Die! My Darling (1966), The Devil's Bride (1968) and De Sade (1969); an episode of the TECHNOFANTASY The Girl from U.N.C.L.E. (1966); a Star Trek episode (1967); two episodes of ROD SERLING'S NIGHT GALLERY (1970); Steven SPIELBERG's Duel (1971 tvm); a tv pilot, Ghost Story (1972 tvm); Dracula (1973 tvm); other 1970s tv horror movies, such as Dying Room Only (1973 tvm), Scream of the Wolf (1974 tvm), The Stranger Within (1974 tvm), Dead of Night (1976 tvm) and The Strange Possession of Mrs. Oliver (1978 tvm); The Martian Chronicles (1980 tvm); the horror movie Jaws 3-D (1983) with Carl Gottlieb; two segments of Twilight Zone: The Movie (1983) (RM was credited author of the segments based on his tv scripts); an episode of Amazing Stories; an episode (1986) of the revived TWILIGHT ZONE as by Logan Swanson; a biopic about L. Frank BAUM, The Dreamer of Oz (1990 tvm); and a segment of Rod Serling's Lost Classics (1994 tvm), adapting a Rod SERLING story.

MATSON, NORMAN The link between the tv series BEWITCHED and I MARRIED A WITCH (1942) is far more tenuous than here claimed.

MATTER Susan SHWARTZ argues that there is indeed a Matter of Araby, citing Malcolm Lyons's talk at the Dumbarton Oaks Center for Byzantine Studies, "The Land of War: Europe in Arab Hero Legends", and Hadia Dajani-Shakeel's "The 'Franks' in Medieval Arabic Poetry". This, Shwartz says, is all pretty new material for Western scholars, and suggests strongly a fantasy-imbued Matter.

The relationship between Matters and medieval travel writing is not brought out in the entry. See Mary B. Campbell's The Witness and the Other World: Exotic European Travel Writing, 400-1600 (1988).

MATTINGLY, DAVID More correctly, this entry head should be MATTINGLY, DAVID B(URROUGHS).

MAY, JULIAN In the second paragraph, for "In 1982" read "In 1981". In the third paragraph, for "Tuag" read "Tanu".

MAYNE, WILLIAM In Other works, remove comma from the title of The Long Night (1958). Antar and the Eagles (1989) is a full-length fantasy. Cradlefasts (1995) is a sequel to Earthfasts (1966), which is discussed in the main text. Both volumes of The Fairy Tales of London are collections; the published title of the second volume is See-Saw Sacradown.

MEAGHER, MAUDE Queried dates (1895-1977) now confirmed.

MEIER, SHIRLEY For "Sterling" read "Stirling".

MENARCHE For "When the term is used in descriptions of fantasy, describes" read "When the term is used in fantasy texts, it refers to".

MERLIN The Faerie Queene should be dated 1590-96. Neither ARTHUR nor Merlin can be said to "figure prominently" in The Faerie Queene: Arthur is a peripheral figure and Merlin less than that.

MESOPOTAMIAN EPIC For "18-century" read "18th-century".

MESSIAHS The reference to Kuttner is illusory.


MICE AND RATS Entry should mention E.T.A. HOFFMANN's "Nussknacker unde Mausekönig" (>> notes on Hoffmann in the Addenda) and L. Frank BAUM's The Wonderful Wizard of Oz (1900).

MIDSUMMER NIGHT'S DREAM, A (1935) For "de Haviland" read "de Havilland".

MILITARY FANTASY For "Walter John WILLIAMS" read "Walter Jon Williams". The paragraph on logistic problems should refer also to Elizabeth MOON's Paksennarion trilogy.

MILLHAUSER, STEVEN For "Alice in Wonderland (1864)" read "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland (1865)".

MILTON, JOHN Mention should also be made of Paradise Regained (1671), Samson Agonistes (1671) and Comus (1637).

MIRACLE ON 34TH STREET The musical remake – Miracle on 34th Street (1973 tvm) – has in fact been shown several further occasions. Its cast includes Sebastian Cabot, Roddy McDowall, Jim Backus, and David Hartman.

MIRROR Through the Looking-Glass was published in 1871, not 1872.

MISTER ED To credits add Connie Hines (Carol Post).

The following entry was omitted from the first printing:

MIYAZAKI, HAYAO (1941- ) Japanese animator, MANGA writer/artist, Japan's foremost living fantasy moviemaker. As well as being influenced by national fantasy authors such as Kenji Miyazawa, HM also has a lifelong passion for Western writers including J.R.R. TOLKIEN and Ursula LE GUIN. His first movie projects included Gulliver's Travels Beyond the Moon (ot Gariba no Uchu Ryokou; 1966; >> GULLIVER MOVIES).

Through the 1960s and 1970s, HM worked on numerous animes, producing layouts for acclaimed tv versions of Heidi (1880-81) by Johanna Spyri (1829-1901) and Anne of Green Gables (1908) by Lucy Maud Montgomery (1874-1942). He also directed episodes of Lupin III, a long-running comedy-action series about a globetrotting master thief. His cinema directorial debut was Castle of Cagliostro (ot Cagliostro no Shiro; 1979), a Lupin spinoff involving a fairytale princess and much swashbuckling adventure. Of more genre interest is Future Boy Conan (ot Mirai Shonen Conan; 1978), an expertly plotted tv post-HOLOCAUST serial with a telepathic heroine, set on a world where nature has regenerated after a continent-shattering war.

The ecology theme was expanded in Nausicaa of the Valley of Wind (ot Kaze no Tani no Nausicaa; graph 1982-94), HM's most important work. Originally a manga in the Japanese magazine Animage – with artwork reminiscent of MOEBIUSNausicaa is set centuries after civilization's destruction by manmade titans. The poisoned Earth is covered by a great forest of fungus, the Sea of Corruption: though lethal to humans, the forest is crystallizing Earth's poisons to allow its rebirth (shades of Lovelock's Gaia theory). Nausicaa, leading one of the few surviving human communities, is an impossibly courageous, gentle teenage girl (loosely based on HOMER's princess), with an empathy for the great insects who guard the toxic forest.

The complex story chronicles Nausicaa's unwilling involvement in human wars (fought with retro-technology: airships fill the sky, ground battles are conducted by grenade-throwing cavalry mounted on horse/bird hybrids) and her search for the world's secrets. The story takes a consciously mythical turn when, guilt-ridden and suicidal, Nausicaa is swallowed by an insect and traverses a personal UNDERWORLD/rebirth.

By the time HM wrote the last chapters of the manga Nausicaa he had changed his worldview: in a TECHNOFANTASY twist he reveals that the tale's ecology – and all its lifeforms, including the humans – were engineered by the scientists of the pre-holocaust world to secure their RESURRECTION. However, Nausicaa argues these ancient saviours are actually holdfasts, trapping life in a cycle of slavery and suffering. In a devastating, iconoclastic climax, Nausicaa uses a revived titan to destroy humanity's racebank, wiping out its past but perhaps giving it a better (if always imperfect) future.

Nausicaa is among the best COMIC-strips ever written: with elements of post-holocaust adventure, PLANETARY ROMANCE, ecofantasy and messianic epic, it is also a staunchly REVISIONIST FANTASY, not least because it has no true villain. The strip was sensitively translated by the US publisher Viz Comics, and released in the West as a series of GRAPHIC NOVELS.

While creating the strip, HM was also writing/directing a sequence of high-quality anime fantasies, beginning with Nausicaa (1984; rev vt Warriors of the Wind), which reworked the first quarter of the manga story. The movie's success led to the establishment of Studio Ghibli, specializing in theatrical feature animation. It was Ghibli which produced HM's Laputa: The Flying Island (ot Tenku no Shiro Laputa; 1986; vt Castle in the Sky), a PLAYGROUND retro-world fantasy partly modelled on South Wales, with Nausicaa's mishmash of technology; and My Neighbour Totoro (ot Tonari No Totoro; 1988), an idyllic tale of two girls finding a friendly nature spirit.

However, HM's borderline fantasies were more commercially successful: Kiki's Delivery Service (ot Majo No Takkyubin; 1989; newly voiced in English 1998), about a pubescent trainee WITCH whose sole special ability is flight but who nonetheless inspires those around her; and Porco Rosso (ot Kurenai no Buta; 1992), about a 1920s ace pilot who happens to be a pig. (It's notable that nearly all HM's heroes fly: for example, Nausicaa surfs the winds on a jet-powered glider.) HM then produced Pom Poko (1994; vt War of the Raccoons), written/dir by his longtime colleague Isao Takahata (SHAPESHIFTING raccoons battle human developers), before himself writing/producing Whisper of the Heart (ot Mimi o Sumaseba; 1995), a delightful, borderline MAGIC REALIST tale of a girl creating her own fantasy, with spectacular dream sequences. All four movies were tremendously successful at the Japanese cinema, defeating such DISNEY rivals as BEAUTY AND THE BEAST (1991).

HM made his long-awaited return to direction with the blockbuster Princess Mononoke (ot Mononoke Hime; 1997). A national phenomenon, the movie broke the 15-year record held by Steven SPIELBERG's E.T. – The Extra-Terrestrial (1982) and is to date Japan's highest-grossing domestic movie. A thematic sequel to Nausicaa, it has as its title character a feral, wolf-raised girl who fights human invaders on the side of animal GODS, though the Nausicaa role is taken by a boy trying to mediate between both sides. A deal with Disney means Mononoke will be among the first of HM's movies to get an overdue Western release, introducing new audiences to his remarkable work. [AO]

MONSTER MOVIES The Lost World was released in 1925, not 1924. For "Abbott and Costello Meet the Wolf Man" read "Abbott and Costello Meet Frankenstein".

MONTY PYTHON AND THE HOLY GRAIL JC maintains release date was 1974, not 1975. The associated album was released in 1975.

MOORCOCK, MICHAEL MM first used the term "Multiverse" in 1962, not 1965.

The last para of the entry implies that MM's disapproval of writing that is damaging to women was ever expressed in the form of an "advocacy of censorship-like controls over" that form of writing. Over the whole of his career MM has frequently and publicly articulated his opposition to censorship of any kind. During that career, MM has constantly made revisions to earlier work. Any revisions undertaken in the past decade or so are an integral part of that continuing scrutiny.

MOORE, BRIAN Died 1999.

MOORE, C.L. For "Startling Stories" read "Startling Stories". Delete The Mask of Circe and Mutant from Other works.

MORRESSY, JOHN Of fantasy interest is JM's sf novel The Mansions of Space (1983), about a future search through space for the Holy Shroud.

MORRIS, KENNETH For "Hank in Maggs" read "Hankin Maggs". For "Hutiznahuac" read "Huitznahuac". For "Nopalitzin" read "Nopaltzin". The title of his collection is given on the book's title-page as The Dragon Path: Collected Tales of Kenneth Morris; the dustwrapper, which substitutes "Stories" for "Tales", is wrong.

The following entry was omitted from the first printing:

MULISCH, HARRY (1927- ) Dutch writer, mostly of nonfantasy. However, De toekomst van gisteren ["The Future of Yesterday"] (1972), a book-length essay explaining why HM decided not to write a projected book of that title in which HITLER WINS, shows HM's familiarity with the devices and themes of modern fantasy. Hoogste tijd (1985; trans Adrienne Dixon as Last Call 1987 UK) verges on FABULATION; its climactic chapter alludes repeatedly to Edgar Allan POE's The Narrative of Arthur Gordon Pym (1838). The three long stories in Oude lucht (coll 1977; trans Adrienne Dixon in New Writing and Writers #17-#19 1980-82) are variously fantasicated. The title story (trans as "Antique Air") ends with the protagonist passing into an AFTERLIFE; "De Grens" ("The Boundary") is a Franz KAFKA-like tale of bureaucracy overtaking a man whose wife has died on the borderline between two jurisdictions; "Symmetrie" ("Symmetry") is a meditation on the spirit of the 19th-century scientific romance. [GF]

MULTIPLE PERSONALITY Further texts of relevance are S.P. SOMTOW's Moon Dance (1989) and Dave DUNCAN's A Man of His Word tetralogy.

MULTIVERSE According to the OED, the word was coined by William James (1842-1910) in 1895, and was also used by Sir Oliver Lodge (1851-1940) in 1904 and G.K. CHESTERTON in 1920. In this light, both John Cowper POWYS and Michael MOORCOCK were johnny-come-latelies.

MUNDY, TALBOT For "mgrim/Ramsden" read "Jimgrim/Ramsden". For "genuines sages" read "genuine sages".

MUNSTERS The "unseen pet" is occasionally seen, in portions (such as tail, skin, eyes, plated back, mouth). In Munster, Go Home the family inherits a UK estate being used by counterfeiters, not a ghost town "out West".

MUNSTERS TODAY, THE For "Meriweather" read "Meriwether".

MURPHY, PAT In Other works, the anthology Letters from Home contains six stories by PM (and more than one by the other two contributors); all six are contained also in Points of Departure.

MYTHOPOEIC AWARDS Add under Scholarship Award: 1975 C.S. Lewis: A Biography by Roger Lancelyn GREEN and Walter Hooper.


NATHAN, ROBERT The Bishop's Wife was filmed as The Bishop's Wife (1947), starring Cary Grant (as the angel), David Niven and Loretta Young. The film was also updated and remade as The Preacher's Wife in 1996, with Whitney Houston and Denzel Washington.

NEWBOLT, HENRY A further relevant title is The Old Country: A Romance (1906), a TIMESLIP romance.

NEW, ORIGINAL WONDER WOMAN, THE It should be noted that the Queen of Paradise Island is also Princess Diana's mother, so that Diana must compete in the competition wearing a mask and reveals herself as the Queen's daughter only after winning.

NEW TWILIGHT ZONE, THE See notes in the Addenda on The TWILIGHT ZONE. There are also errors of detail:

For "Friedburg" read "Friedberg". For "Neafeld" read "Neufeld". For "Gerard Oswald" read "Gerd Oswald". For "Trikonas" read "Trikonis". For "Robert Craig" read "Robert Crais". For "Enroe" read "Enloe". For "Steven KING" read "Stephen KING". For "Robin Lee" read "Robin Love". For "Patricia Messina" read "Patrice Messina". For "Staczynski" read "Straczynski". The director who asked to be credited as "Alan Smithee" was Gilbert Cates. Michael Bryant is a pseudonym of Alan Brennert. Ron Glass did not write for the series. Steven Rae is a pseudonym of Rockne S. O'Bannon. For "J. Michael Reaves" read "Michael Reaves". "80 episodes" is misleading: there were 65 shows; 32 were an hour long and 33 were 30 minutes long; the hour-long shows each contained two or more stories. Harlan ELLISON was Creative Consultant, not "the story consultant". CBS did not cut the running time of the show to 30 minutes: on CBS three 30-minute shows were aired in the middle of the second season as an experiment. By most accounts, the motives of those working on this series were more idealistic, and the results of their labours were generally more meritorious, than this entry suggests; it shall be replaced in its entirety in future editions.

NICHETTI, MAURIZIO For "Cesare Zavattini's Bicycle Thieves" read "Vittorio de Sica's Bicycle Thieves"; the US vt of that movie was The Bicycle Thief, not merely Bicycle Thief.

NICHOLS, RUTH For "otherworldy" read "otherworldly".

NIGHT VISIONS Exactly three writers contributed fiction to each volume in the series, their contribution being one long or several short stories. Additional writers provided introductions. Clive BARKER did not contribute fiction to Night Visions 4, Stanley Wiater did not contribute fiction to Night Visions 7, Robert R. McCammon did not contribute fiction to Night Visions 8, and F. Paul WILSON did not contribute fiction to Night Visions 9. Richard Laymon died 2001.

NIVEN, LARRY For "The Divine Comedy (c1304-21)" read "The Divine Comedy (1472)".

NODIER, CHARLES The original translation of Trilby was by Nathan Haskell Dole, whose introduction makes it clear that Trilby was translated in 1895 as a result of the success of George DU MAURIER's Trilby (1894).

NORDIC FANTASY For "were eventually destroyed in RAGNAROK" read "were eventually to be destroyed in RAGNAROK". For "Grendel (1971)" read "Grendel (1971)".

NORTON, MARY The Borrowers Omnibus (omni 1966) was expanded in 1983 to include The Borrowers Avenged and Poor Stainless and retitled The Complete Borrowers.

NOVELIZATIONS Fuller ascription: The Vampyre: A Tale (1819 chap). The novelization of The Ten Commandments (1924) was, like the movie on which it was based, in no sense a "Biblical drama".

NOW YOU SEE IT, NOW YOU DON'T Delete this cross-reference entry.

NYE, ROBERT A further relevant title is Cricket: Three Stories (coll 1975 chap US; vt Once Upon Three Times 1978 chap UK), containing retold traditional tales. The dates of RN's story collections should be rendered in bold type.


OBERON A Midsummer Night's Dream was first performed c1595, not 1596.

The following entry was omitted from the first printing:



OCCULT FANTASY Gerald Suster died 2001.

ODYSSEUS A further relevant title is The Odyssey: A Modern Sequel (1938) by Nikos KAZANTZAKIS.

OLIPHANT, MARGARET "The Secret Chamber" was first published in Blackwood's in 1886, not 1878.

Fuller ascriptions: A Beleaguered City, Being a Narrative of Certain Recent Events in the City of Semur, in the Department of the Haute Bourgogne: A Story of the Seen and the Unseen (1879 New Quarterly; 1879 US; exp dated 1880 but 1879 UK); The Lady's Walk (1883 Longman's Magazine; 1883 US; much exp 1897 UK).

OLIVIA The following paragraph was omitted:

Female painters of cheesecake, although virtually unknown in other countries, are not uncommon in the USA, with Mabel Rollins Harris in the 1930s and 1940s and Zoe Mozart (Alice Adelaide Moser) in the 1950s and 1960s forming something of a tradition which continues with O from the 1970s to the present and Julie Bell in the 1980s and 1990s. All include a large element of idealized self-portraiture in their work.

ONIONS, OLIVER Widdershins has the vt The First Book of Ghost Stories: Widdershins (1978 US).

OPERA References to Sir Arthur SULLIVAN, Michael TIPPETT and Richard WAGNER should be cross-referred. Robert Moran was co-composer with Philip Glass of The Juniper Tree. Minao Shibata died 1996.

[Alphabetical key to composer list.]

OVID Fuller ascription: The Metamorphoses of Ovid (written c1-8AD; trans Arthur Golding as The XV Books of P. Ovidius Naso, entytled Metamorphosis 1565-7 UK; 20th-century trans A.E. Watts 1954 US with illus dating drom 1931 by Pablo Picasso; Horace Gregory 1958 US; newest trans Allen Mandelbaum 1993 US).

OWEN, FRANK Ethel Owen was FO's sister, not his wife.

OZ The argument concerning COLOUR-CODING should not be taken to imply that the lands of Oz are literally coloured differently: they are coloured differently on MAPS, and there is an allusion in the series' first book (nowhere else repeated) to the various countries' inhabitants having a slightly different skin colour.

It is nowhere definitely established that Oz lies within the boundaries of the USA. Ozma in fact ascends the throne because of her hereditary right. It is untrue to say that none of the inhabitants of Oz owe their ancestry to European FAIRYTALE: there are, for example, WITCHES and GIANTS. For "one of four resident witches in Oz" read "one of the resident witches in Oz". There should be cross-references to The WIZARD OF OZ, under which rubric the various Oz movies are treated, and to Geoff RYMAN for discussion of his "Was . . ." (1992).


PAGEMASTER, THE The Neverending Story was published in 1979, not 1983. For "Alice in Wonderland" read "Alice's Adventures in Wonderland".

PALWICK, SUSAN For "Allcott" read "Alcott".

PASTORAL It should be noted that the term is in widespread use to describe (for instance) a POLDER like Walt KELLY's Okefenokee Swamp.

The Faerie Queene should be dated 1590-96. For "The Shephearde's Calendar" read "The Shephearde's Calender".

PEAKE, MERVYN Sometime, Never was published in 1956, not 1976.

PERRAULT, CHARLES Andrew LANG's Perrault's Popular Tales (coll 1888) is not a translation but a critical edition of the original French; in the same para listing further translations, the phrase "coll trans" should be used throughout in place of "coll". It is frequently stated that CP did not introduce the notion of the glass slipper, but this was born through a mistranslation into English of a French word meaning "fur"; we have been unable to establish the accuracy of this account.

PETER PAN The tv version of the musical with Mary Martin was aired in 1960, not 1955.

PETER PAN (1953) It should be noted that, at the end of the movie, the Lost Boys are not adopted by the Darlings but remain with Peter.

PHANTOM, THE In addition there have been novelizations by Falk, Basil Copper, Ron GOULART, and others, and movie serials, for which latter we have been unable to obtain details. There have been related tv series: the animated Defenders of the Earth (from 1986); and Phantom 2040, set in the future, when the 23rd Phantom continues his activities. The latter also appeared as a comic, Phantom 2040 (4 issues, 1995) from MARVEL. Illustrators have also included Steve DITKO. Ray Moore, the first of the illustrators, died in 1984. Wilson McCoy, who took over during WWII (not after Ray Moore's injury, as the entry says, but when Moore went into active service; McCoy then assisted the war-injured Moore until the latter's retirement in 1947), died in 1961.

PHANTOM OF THE OPERA In the first line, for "11" read "10". The novel was first published in 1910, not 1911. In 4, for "warning of her D'Arcy" read "warning her of D'Arcy".

PICNIC AT HANGING ROCK In credits, Peter Weir should appear as Peter WEIR.

PINOCCHIO (1940) For "Pinocchio (serialized from 1880; 1882)" read "Pinocchio (1883)". Bad cross-reference to DOLPHINS AND WHALES – should read SEA MONSTERS.

PIRATES A better ascription for Peter Pan is: Peter Pan (performed 1904; rev 1928).

PLANCHÉ, JAMES ROBINSON JRP's translations of Charles PERRAULT and Madame d'AULNOY are, respectively, Four-and-Twenty Fairy Tales selected from those of Perrault, etc (anth trans 1858) and Countess D'Aulnoy's Fairy Tales (coll trans 1885).

PLANETARY ROMANCE Since the posthumous compilation John Carter of Mars was published as the 11th book in Edgar Rice BURROUGHS's Barsoom series, one should properly speak of "eight more books" in the series after the initial trilogy, even if John Carter of Mars didn't appear until 1964.

PLOOG, JAN There is confusion between Heavy Metal: The Movie and Ralph BAKSHI's Heavy Traffic (1973).

PLOT DEVICES The first book publication of Three Hearts and Three Lions was in 1961, not 1953.

POE, EDGAR ALLAN The Bloody Red Baron was published in 1995, not 1996.

POLANSKI, ROMAN Polanski did not direct The Magic Christian (dir Joseph McGrath); he played a small role in the movie. RP fled the USA in 1978, not 1979. Pirates (1986) is of associational interest.

POOLE, JOSEPHINE A further relevant title is the very fine TWICE-TOLD version of Snow White (1991 chap) illus Angela Barrett.

POSSESSION For "Darker than you think" read "Darker Than You Think".

POSTHUMOUS FANTASY For "Michael Frayn" read "Michael FRAYN".

POTTER, BEATRIX For "famer" read "farmer". Corrected ascription: The Fairy Caravan (1929).

POWERS, TIM In sixth paragraph, for The Stress of her Regard read The Stress of Her Regard.

PRATCHETT, TERRY Macbeth should be dated (performed 1606; 1623) and A Midsummer Night's Dream (performed 1595; 1600).

PRATT, FLETCHER For "semming" read "seeming". For "Shesa" read "Shea".

PRESTER JOHN For "utilized Charles WILLIAMS" read "utilized by Charles WILLIAMS".

PRICE, E. HOFFMANN For "Far Lands, Other Days" read "Far Lands Other Days".

PUPPETS For "The Adventures of Pinocchio" read "Pinocchio".

PURGATORIO Inferno was published in 1975, not 1976.

PYNCHON, THOMAS In Other works, V was published in 1963, not 1973, Slow Learner in 1984, not 1986.