Fantasy Encyclopedia Updates: I to L


I DREAM OF JEANNIE To the credits should be added Bill Daily (Roger Healey) and Hayden Rorke (Alfred Bellows).

ILLUSTRATION Charles Maurice Detmold lived 1883-1908. Edward Julius Detmold lived 1883-1957. A Child's Garden of Verses was published in 1885, not 1895.

IMAGINARY ANIMALS For "The Story of Dr Dolittle" read "The Story of Doctor Dolittle".

IMAGINARY LANDS Through the Looking-Glass was published in 1871, not 1872. A better ascription for Peter Pan is: Peter Pan (performed 1904; rev 1928). For "Pier's ANTHONY's" read "Piers ANTHONY's". To reach Oz one must wait for a tornado/cyclone, not a hurricane. The entry on Alasdair GRAY appears in the Addenda, not in the main text.

IMMORTALITY She was first published in 1886, not 1887.

INFERNO There are nine descending circles, not seven.

INKLINGS Owen Barfield died 1997.

INVISIBLE MAN, THE (1933) The Invisible Woman (1940), The Invisible Man (1958 Mexico) and The Invisible Man (1975 tvm) should be added to the list of subsequent movies.

ITALIAN FANTASY For "Pinocchio (1881)" read "Pinocchio (1883)".

IT'S A WONDERFUL LIFE The credit to the original story should read: "Based on: The Greatest Gift: A Christmas Tale (1943 chap) by Philip Van Doren Stern (1900-1984)."

IWERKS, UB Mention should be made of the important developmental work UI did on the multiplane camera.


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JACKSON, SHIRLEY (1919-1965) US fabulist best remembered for The Haunting of Hill House (1959) and her celebrated, frequently anthologized short story "The Lottery" (1948). Beyond these, and outside a relatively small coterie of admirers, her stylistic and thematic influence on HORROR fiction received scant acknowledgement until the 1980s. Yet her outstanding tales of psychological terror display a genuine eccentricity and ability to shock.

SJ's first story, the one-page "Janice" (1937), was about a suicidal student. By the mid-1940s she had become a regular contributor to The New Yorker. In her eleventh story for the magazine, "The Lottery" (1948), the "winner" of a town's annual lottery is taken out and stoned to death – at ten o'clock on a Saturday morning so the citizens can get home in time for lunch. All the more unsettling because of its straightforward, no-frills approach, the story drew an avalanche of outraged complaints. Now considered a minor classic of contemporary US literature, it was collected the following year with other short fiction for her first book, The Lottery, or, The Adventures of James Harris (coll 1949). The stories here and in the posthumous The Magic of Shirley Jackson (coll 1966) and Come Along With Me (coll 1968), both edited by Stanley Edgar Hyman, give a sampling of her preoccupations – psychological derangement and alienation – and demonstrate one of the most intriguing aspects of her work: the fact that you never quite know if the supernatural element is real or a figment of her characters' disturbed minds (i.e., if these are straightforward fantasies or fantasies of PERCEPTION).

"The Lottery" was adapted for television by Ellen M. Violett and broadcast in the Cameo Theatre series in 1950; Violett's script is collected in Best Television Plays 1950-51 (anth 1952) ed William I. Kauffman.

The early 1950s saw Jackson expanding into novel form, with Hangsaman (1951) and The Bird's Nest (1954, vt Lizzie 1957), both of which depict mental disintegration. They have values, not least the inclusion of a strain of black humour generally more in evidence in the novels than the shorts, but the overall effect is less than satisfying and neither has dated particularly well.

Her last three novels, The Sundial (1958), The Haunting of Hill House and We Have Always Lived in the Castle (1962), are the most impressive.

In The Sundial, a book in which all the strands do not come together adroitly, a ghost appears to the unsavoury, neurotic Halloran family to make dire predictions about a coming apocalypse. They barricade themselves in their New England home to await the END OF THE WORLD. The wry humour of the opening gives way to a more harrowing and claustrophobic ambience. As the prophecy appears to come true – storms build and supernatural omens occur – it seems their decision to hide away may have been a right one, but the book ends suddenly and we never find out.

The Haunting of Hill House, on the other hand, is near perfect in terms of style and structure. Eleanor Vance, troubled by the death of her overbearing mother, was the centre of poltergeist activity as a child. Parapsychologist John Montague, believing she is a sensitive, invites her to take part in an investigation of unusual happenings at Hill House. They are accompanied by Luke, a flip cynic looking to inherit the place; and Theodora, a self-seeking young psychic. Eleanor is the epicentre of increasingly violent manifestations and becomes convinced that the house, a malignant sponge for emotional energy, will never let her leave. It finally claims her. SJ leaves the extent of Eleanor's unwilling complicity in what goes on in the house unresolved. There is little doubt Hill House is haunted in some way; the question is to what extent Eleanor is responsible for the phenomena. It is a testament to the author's skill in weaving Eleanor's possible descent into something like insanity with the supernatural occurrences that we cannot disentangle the two. Ultimately it doesn't matter, because the book is a study in character and atmosphere. Robert Wise filmed the book as The Haunting (1963).

We Have Always Lived in the Castle has no supernatural content at all – at least, not overtly so. The story is narrated by a disturbed teenager who may have slaughtered her entire family, and who has created a completely self-contained internal world. For her the outside is a barren landscape populated by ghosts and ghouls. SJ manages to elicit our sympathy for this character: by the time a gang of villagers run amok and burn down the house we are rooting for the "monster". [SN]

Other works: The Road Through the Wall (1948, vt The Other Side of the Street, 1956); The Witchcraft of Salem Village (1956), nonfiction, juvenile; The Bad Children: A Play in One Act for Bad Children (1959); Life Among the Savages (1953) and Raising Demons (1957), both nonfiction with SJ's husband, Stanley Edgar Hyman (1919-1970), uncredited; 9 Magic Wishes (1963), juvenile; Famous Sally (1966), juvenile; and Special Delivery: A Useful Book for Brand-New Mothers (1960, vt And Baby Makes Three, 1960), nonfiction; and Just an Ordinary Day (coll 1997), ed Laurence Jackson Hyman and Sarah Hyman Stewart.

Further reading: Private Demons: The Life of Shirley Jackson by Judy Oppenheimer (1988); and Jackson by Lenemaja Friedman (1975).

JACKSON, STEVE There is some confusion between two Steve Jacksons. Steven Gary Jackson, who writes as Steve Jackson, wrote three of the books in the Fighting Fantasy series, which was created by the other Steve Jackson in association with Ian Livingstone. Steven Gary Jackson's three are Scorpion Swamp (1984), Demons of the Deep (1986) and Robot Commando (1986).

JAKES, JOHN Gil Kane's dates are (1926-2000).

JAMES, JOHN Queried 1993 death date now confirmed.

JANSSON, TOVE Died 2001. For "alient" read "alien".

JAPAN For "Kojiki" read "Koji-Ki".

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JONES, CHUCK Working name of US animator, director, author and artist Charles Martin Jones (1912-2002). CJ is credited as one of the creators of BUGS BUNNY, Porky Pig, Daffy Duck and Elmer Fudd. Other character creations include Road Runner, Wile E. Coyote, Claude Cat, Marvin Martian, Pepe Le Pew, Ralph Wolf, Sam Sheepdog, Sniffles, SNAFU, Crawford, Hubie & Bertie, Gossamer, Henery Hawk, Hugo the Abominable Snowman, Junyer Bear, Marc Anthony and Kitty. Explaining the enduring appeal of CJ's work, Peter Bogdanovich said, "[It] remains, like all good fables and only the best of art, both timeless and universal."

CJ first became aware of movies and their production as a young extra in Max Sennett comedies. The Charles Chaplin studios were a short distance from his home and the young CJ took full opportunity to observe comedies being filmed; he credits Chaplin's work as his instruction in the art of timing. His entry into the world of animation was at Pat Powers' Celebrity Pictures, where he worked for Ub IWERKS as a cel washer and drew on Flip the Frog cartoons. Hired in 1936 by Leon Schlesinger Studio (later sold to Warner Bros.) to join Tex AVERY's animation unit, CJ worked his way up, starting as a cel washer and moving on to animator, writer, assistant director and director. His directorial debut was The Night Watchman (1938).

During WWII CJ directed 12 of the 26 Private SNAFU training movies for the US Army Signal Corps. and a re-election film for Franklin Roosevelt. He remained with Warner Bros. until they closed their animation division in 1962, except for a brief hiatus in 1955 when he worked for DISNEY. Among his shorts for Warner Bros. were Rabbit of Seville (1950), What's Opera Doc? (1957), Haredevil Hare (1948), One Froggy Evening (1956), Duck Amuck (1953), Duck Dodgers in the 24 1/2 th Century (1953), Rabbit Fire (1951), Frigid Hare (1949), Rabbit Seasoning (1952), The Scarlet Pumpernickel (1950), For Scent-imental Reasons (1949), and Hare-Raising Hare (1946).

Asked why so many of these shorts were so successful, CJ once explained: "One of the many curiosities of the Warner Bros. Studio was that we were not allowed to edit in any way. A director had to learn how to time the picture to exactly six minutes, within a few frames. In order to create a piece like What's Opera Doc? the animation team had to cheat. We had so many Road Runners, we knew we could do them fast. All eight animators would work like crazy to finish a Road Runner picture in two and a half weeks, but would keep 'Road Runner' on their worksheets after they'd started on something like What's Opera Doc? This meant we could produce an extra film over eight or nine weeks."

In 1962 CJ opened Tower 12 Productions with Les Goldman and went to work for MGM, producing Tom and Jerry cartoons (1963-7). As Vice President of Children's Programming at ABC-TV he coproduced, wrote and directed The Bugs Bunny Show (1960-75) and the children's weekly variety show Curiosity Shop (1971-3). He also headed the MGM animation department, where he directed How the Grinch Stole Christmas! (1966), Horton Hears a Who (1971), The Dot and The Line (1965), The Pogo Special Birthday Special (1969) and the feature The Phantom Tollbooth (1969; >> Norbert JUSTER).

CJ is currently CEO and president of Chuck Jones Enterprises, established in 1962, for which he has produced, written and directed: The Cricket in Times Square (1973), A Very Merry Cricket (1973) and Yankee Doodle Cricket (1975) for ABC; Rikki-Tikki-Tavi (1975), The White Seal (1975), Mowgli's Brothers (1976), Saint Saens's The Carnival of the Animals (1976), A Connecticut Rabbit in King Arthur's Court (1978; >> A CONNECTICUT YANKEE) and two tv specials featuring Raggedy Ann and Andy, The Great Santa Claus Caper (1978) and The Pumpkin who Couldn't Smile (1979). He coproduced Dr Seuss' Cat in the Hat (1971; >> Dr SEUSS); executive produced Charles Dickens' A Christmas Carol, Being a Ghost Story of Christmas (1971; >> A CHRISTMAS CAROL; Richard WILLIAMS); wrote and codirected the feature Gay Purr-ee (1962); did the bridges and new animation for Daffy Duck's Thanks-for-Giving Special (1980), Bugs Bunny's Bustin' Out All Over (1980), plus a feature compilation of past work: Chuck Jones' Bugs Bunny/Road Runner Movie (1968) for CBS; and the titles for Gremlins 2 – The New Batch (1990; GREMLINS). Under the CJE banner he has served as consultant and goodwill representative for Warner Bros. from 1962 to present.

As chairman of Chuck Jones Productions, a division of Chuck Jones Enterprises, CJ has also developed new theatrical properties including Chariots of Fur (1994), Superior Duck (1996), Pullet Surprise (1997), Father of the Bird (1997) and two unreleased shorts, «Another Froggy Evening» and «From Hare To Eternity», plus the animated sequences for the live-action movies STAY TUNED (1992) and Mrs. Doubtfire (1993).

CJ has received three Academy Awards, two for best animated shorts (For Scent-imental Reasons in 1950, The Dot and the Line in 1965), and one for best documentary short subject (So Much for So Little in 1950). In 1996 he was presented an Honorary Oscar by the Board of Governors of the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences. Numerous worldwide retrospectives have honoured CJ; his artwork has been displayed in New York City's Museum of Modern Art (1985) and at the Capital Children's Museum National Center for Animation, Washington, DC (1995), and was the subject of a major exhibit at the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia (1995).

He has published six children's books based on his Cricket and Kipling tv specials plus the children's book William the Backwards Skunk (1986). He has been the subject of Chuck Amuck: The Movie (1989), Chuck Jones – A Life of Animation (1991), one episode and periodic references in the series The Creative Spirit (1993), and The Magical World of Chuck Jones (1992). CJ was Lecturer Emeritus at the University of California in San Diego during 1986, and continues to lecture at primary, secondary and advanced education schools, colleges and universities throughout the world.

CJ's talent is more than just the artistic ability to design, create and time a cartoon: it also springs from the integration of life experience, love of music and literature, an irrepressible sense of humour and keen observation, and the gift to translate what he observes into a character, be it written or animated. He is currently engaged in the creation of fine-art drawings. [PDS]

Other works: Chuck Amuck: The Life and Times of an Animated Cartoonist (1989); Chuck Reducks: Drawings from The Fun Side of Life (graph 1996).

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JONES, GWYNETH (ANN) (1952- ) UK writer whose intense and challengingly complex adult works are chiefly sf (>> SFE). Her first book, Water in the Air (1977), is CHILDREN'S FANTASY, as is her fourth, Dear Hill (1980).

Most subsequent juveniles have appeared under the pseudonym Ann Halam. These begin with Ally Ally Aster (1981), featuring elements of NORDIC FANTASY, and The Alder Tree (1982), a modern GOTHIC FANTASY laden with WORM imagery, whose villain is a DRAGON in human form. The fine GHOST STORY King Death's Garden (1986) develops a subtle, haunting chill as its unwary young protagonist – fascinated by a Brighton cemetery's GHOST-girl inhabitant – himself strays close to the BONDAGE of ghosthood; there are echoes of Walter DE LA MARE, who provides the epigraph. The Haunting of Jessica Raven (1994) is another ghost story. The Fear Man (1995) is HORROR.

As Halam, GJ created her best juvenile fantasy sequence in the Inland trilogy: The Daymaker (1987), Transformations (1988) and The Skybreaker (1990). The prickly, nonconformist heroine Zanne lives in post-HOLOCAUST Inland, where her deep empathy for machines (>> TECHNOFANTASY) seems misplaced since this magical, matriarchal UTOPIA depends on a covenant with the LAND which prohibits technology. Any active machine exudes poisonous WRONGNESS. Technophile Zanne LEARNS BETTER and finds that her HEALING vocation is to locate and shut down such beloved engines as the Daymaker, seemingly a nuclear power plant, and the polluting device which engenders the second book's mutations and WEREWOLF-like TRANSFORMATIONS. Another tough, rebellious girl with psychic TALENTS stars in the CONTEMPORARY FANTASY The Hidden Ones (1988), as by GJ.

Two of GJ's adult sf novels come particularly close to fantasy. Divine Endurance (1984) is set in the Southeast Asia of a far-future DYING EARTH, disrupted by two artificial beings who with dreadful innocence can grant humanity's deepest and most ill-advised WISHES. The metaphysical complications of Kairos (1988) stem from a drug whose use transforms objective REALITY. Seven Tales and a Fable (coll 1995 US) won a WORLD FANTASY AWARD for best collection. [DRL]

Other works: >> SFE. The Influence of Ironwood (1978) and The Exchange (1979) are associational juveniles.

See also: GENDER.

JONES, TERRY Fantastic Stories (coll 1992; cut vt The Dragon on the Roof 1996 chap) should be added.

JORDAN, ROBERT For "from the ARTHUR in particular" read "from the ARTHUR cycle in particular". The Dragon Roborn should read The Dragon Reborn.

JOSHI, S.T. Fuller ascription: An Index to the Selected Letters of H.P. Lovecraft (1980 chap; rev 1991 chap). A further relevant work is Lovecraft's Library: A Catalogue (1980 chap) with Marc A. Michaud. The H.P. Lovecraft Dream Book was edited with David E. Schultz (not Shultz) and Will Murray. For "Selected Papers on H.P. Lovecraft (anth 1989)" read "Selected Papers on Lovecraft (coll 1989)". The corrected editions of Lovecraft's works published in the 1980s by Arkham House were ed/corrected by STJ.


KALEVALA Emil Petaja died 2000.

KANE, BOB Died 1998.

KÄSTNER, ERICH EK's most fantasticated book is arguably Es geschah am 35. Mai ["It Happened on the 35th of May"]. Also of interest are Der Kleine Mann (trans James Kirkup as The Little Man 1966 UK) and Der Kleine Mann und die Kleine Miss (trans Kirkup as The Little Man and the Little Miss 1969 UK; vt The Little Man and the Big Thief 1969 US).

KAVAN, ANNA In Other works it should be noted that Mercury is an early draft of Ice without the futuristic setting. Add:

Further reading: The Case of Anna Kavan (1992) by D.A. Callard.

KAY, GUY GABRIEL The Lions of Al-Rassan was published in 1995.

KAYE, MARVIN The direct influence on the Fillmore series (as opposed to the generic base provided by L. Sprague DE CAMP) was Silverlock (1949) by John Myers MYERS. In the Aubrey House sequence the haunt is by not a ghost but (according to MK) "a pool of pure psychic energy".

KAZANTZAKIS, NIKOS The translated Christ Recrucified has the US vt The Greek Passion 1954.

KELLY, WALT Okefenokee is a PASTORAL environment.

KING, STEPHEN For "F-Stop Fitzgerald" read "F-stop Fitzgerald". SK is not in fact involved in the movie company Castle Rock. The running head on page 538 is missing a comma: despite SK's bestselling status he has not yet been elevated to the monarchy. Dolores Claiborne was published in 1993, not 1992. Cat's Eye was released in 1985, not 1984. The Shawshank Redemption was released in 1994, not 1995. Sometimes They Come Back is a tvm. Mention should also be made of Stephen King's Golden Years (1991 tvm) and The Langoliers (1995 tvm). Many of the movies/tvms listed here have vts/ots differentiated solely by the words "Stephen King's". In Other works, SK merely introduced, did not edit, Frankenstein, Dracula, and Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (omni/anth 1978); and The Monkey and The Raft may be ghost titles as separate publications, although both short stories appear elsewhere; Creepshow should be designated "graph"; My Pretty Pony was published in 1989, not 1988. In Further reading, while The Work of Stephen King: An Annotated Bibliography and Guide was announced for 1991, it was not published until 1996.

KING KONG MOVIES Gary Westfahl comments: "There are no grounds for excluding King Kong vs. Godzilla and King Kong Escapes from your list. These films did not merely 'exploit the name'; both featured KK as a leading character. In fact, the origin of the first movie was a Willis O'Brien proposal for a movie entitled King Kong vs. Frankenstein; but the US producer he approached couldn't get financing and took the project to Japan, where Godzilla got involved. Thus, there is even a direct family linkage between the US films and the Japanese films. Also, while the films were not as good as the US ones, they weren't chopped liver either; King Kong vs. Godzilla is one of the better Honda films, King Kong Escapes featured US actor Rhodes Reason, and both films received theatrical release in the USA."

Anthony Browne's quasi-novelization has the vt Anthony Browne's King Kong, and the authorship of its text is unclear. For "World Trade Centre" read "World Trade Center".

KINSELLA, W.P. Further relevant titles are The Dixon Cornbelt League and Other Baseball Stories (coll 1993) and The Winter Helen Dropped By (1995), the latter possibly having only associational status. For "Simon Ermineskin" read "Silas Ermineskin". For "exhibition match" read "exhibition game".

KIRBY, JOSH Died 2001.

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KONDRATIEV, ALEXANDER (1876-1967) Russian writer, all of whose books combine various mythological and religious systems in order to create a new supreme being, the demonic female who rules the world. This female appears For the first time in She-satyr (1907), where she is the daughter of PAN and the holy virgin Artemis (>> GODDESS). In the beginning AK was carried away with Greek mythology, but in the 1930s he turned to Russian folklore. At this time he wrote On the Shores of Volyn River (1930), based on his first published story, "The Goblin" (1901), along with many poems and anthropological articles. Forced to leave Russia in 1939, AK died almost 30 years later in a New York hospital. [CMK]

See also: RUSSIA (entry in Addenda).

KOONTZ, DEAN R. The full title of the Owen West tie is The Funhouse: . . . Carnival of Terror.

KOTZWINKLE, WILLIAM The Leopard's Tooth (1976 chap), a lycanthropy tale set in Africa, is a short novel for children rather than, as with the other juveniles cited, essentially a picture book. Most of these juveniles were illustrated by Joe Servello, who also illustrated The Leopard's Tooth. Hearts of Wood and Other Timeless Tales (coll 1986 chap) illus Servello is a collection of original FAIRYTALES. Trouble in Bugland: A Collection of Inspector Mantis Mysteries (coll 1983) is a classic example (and parody) of the GASLIGHT ROMANCE.

KURLAND, MICHAEL MK denies any PACT WITH THE DEVIL implication to the Holmes pastiches; nor does A Study in Sorcery "invoke" Holmes.


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LABYRINTH US puppet/live-action movie (1986). Henson Associates/Lucasfilm/TriStar. Pr Eric Rattray. Exec pr George Lucas. Dir Jim HENSON. Spfx Richard Conway, George Gibbs. Creature design Brian FROUD. Special acknowledgements Maurice SENDAK, estate of M.C. ESCHER. Screenplay Terry JONES. Novelizations Labyrinth: A Storybook * (1986; vt Labyrinth: A Children's Storybook 1986 UK) by Louise Gikow and Labyrinth: The Novel * (1986) by A.C.H. Smith. Starring David Bowie (Jareth, King of the Goblins), Jennifer Connelly (Sarah). 101 mins. Colour.

Fantasy-obsessed teenager Sarah, left by her STEPMOTHER in charge of baby halfbrother Toby, inadvertently uses the correct MAGIC WORDS to call on the King of the GOBLINS to take the child away forever. She changes her mind, and the King, Jareth, appears to her, offering her in place of Toby a crystal ball which will bring her all she dreams. As she is obdurate, he instead offers a CONTRACT: she may have Toby if within the next THIRTEEN hours she can reach him through the LABYRINTH that lies between here and the castle where he is held – otherwise Toby will become a goblin. In this QUEST she eventually succeeds, though not before encountering FAIRIES that appear cute but are spiteful and biting, the untrustworthy DWARF Hoggle, the friendly MONSTER Ludo and much else besides. In the end all that saves her and Toby from Jareth's duplicities is her ritual incantation of the words "You have no power over me"", which enables her to perceive (>> PERCEPTION) that he and his kingdom have been only ILLUSION.

L's many flaws obfuscate its undoubted virtues. Several dull songs are rendered as if rock videos; the effect of the visually and conceptually highly impressive LAST BATTLE of wits, conducted in an Escheresque stairwell, is thereby destroyed. A further worm at L's core is Bowie's flat performance as Jareth; as Connelly's Sarah is a confident, positive evocation of virtue, the contest between GOOD AND EVIL becomes one-sided. In L the DEVIL does not have all the best songs; and, given many of the best lines, proves incapable of delivering them. [JG]

Further reading: Labyrinth: The Photo Album * (photo coll 1986) by Rebecca Grand.

LACKEY, MERCEDES The Vows and Honor series is not truly a subseries of the World of Valdemar sequence, being only later loosely connected to it via By the Sword (1991), which is not a singleton but an integral part of the main sequence. The Last Herald-Mage subseries is set about 1000 years before the sequence proper.

LAFFERTY, R.A. Died 2002. RAL started to write full time in 1970, not 1971. For "Dagan" read "Dagen".

LANCE, KATHRYN The inclusion of Phantom Valley #1: H.O.W.L. High (1991) is a mistake; the author of the singleton, H.O.W.L. High (1991), is Ellen (W.) Leroe (1991- ). KL's Phantom Valley series correctly begins with The Evil One (1991) and continues in the order listed.

LATIN AMERICA Silvina Ocampo's dates are (1903-1993).

LAWRENCE, ANN Delete The Half-Brothers from Other works (it is treated in the main text).

LEGEND The male protagonist should be cross-referred to JACK. Gump is a PUCK figure rather than a woodland SPIRIT. JC maintains that the Great Tree where the Dark Lord rules is an EDIFICE.

LE GUIN, URSULA K. Fuller ascription: "The Poacher" (from Xanadu, anth 1993, ed Jane YOLEN). King Dog (1985 dos) is not a play but a screenplay.

LEONARDO DA VINCI In Further reading, for "synthetic" read "synthesizing".

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LEVSHIN, VASILY (1746-1826) Russian writer, statesman, member of the Italian Academy of Sciences, and one of the pioneers of fantasy in Russia. He wrote many specialized texts, including one on cattle breeding; translated popular novels from German; and published two volumes of his own literary works – Russian Tales (coll 1780-83) and its sequel The Night Hours: Ancient Slavonic Tales (coll 1787-88) – which were the germs of the Russian fantasy. [CMK]

See also: RUSSIA (entry in Addenda).

LEWIS, C.S. For "Pofessor" read "Professor". For "a eldil-borne" read "an eldil-borne".

LEWIS, WYNDHAM A further relevant title is the posthumous Mrs Duke's Millions (1977).

LIGOTTI, THOMAS For "Grimscribe: His Life and Works" read "Grimscribe: His Lives and Works".

LIMBO Dante was careful to specify that Limbo was for virtuous pagans and unbaptized children, not unbaptized adults.


LINDSAY, DAVID Born 1876, not 1878.

LITTLE, BENTLEY According to BL his first story of genre interest (although it may not be supernatural horror) is "Pray for Baby" for The Horror Show in 1984. The Summoning features not a host of vampires but a single Chinese vampire who recruits Christian fundamentalists as his disciples.

LITTLE NEMO: ADVENTURES IN SLUMBERLAND Release date should read (1989). It is King Morpheus, rather than Professor Genius, who gives Little Nemo the key he must not use to unlock the door to the Land of Nightmare. Icarus is not a chipmunk but a flying squirrel.

LIVELY, PENELOPE Fuller ascription: A House Inside Out (coll 1987; cut vt Lost Dog and Other Stories 1996 chap).

LLYWELYN, MORGAN ML's only novel as by Shannon Lewis is a contemporary story on the abortion/anti-abortion issue. In the context of ML's work the birthdate of Brian Boru should be considered as 941 rather than the frequently accepted ?926; this latter contradicts the Chronicles of Ireland and implausibly has him killing a man in single combat at the age of 87. Xerxes is not a novel but a historical biography.

LOCUS AWARDS For "Sherri" read "Sheri".

LOFTING, HUGH Certainly the first and almost certainly all the Stokes US editions of the Dolittle sequence, which always precede the UK editions, give Doctor in full, not Dr. The subtitle of the first book is Being the History of his Peculiar Life at Home and Astonishing Adventures in Foreign Parts.

An omitted title is The Story of Zingo: The Commercial Traveler (1924 chap), in which a monkey becomes a salesman. It was written to advertise Colgate's New Ribbon Dental Cream.


LONDON Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was published in 1886, not 1888. For "Heart of Darkness (1902)" read "'Heart of Darkness' (1899)".

LORRAH, JEAN Not born c1938, or even in the 1930s; we have been unable to establish her birthdate.

LOST BOYS, THE A better ascription for Peter Pan is: Peter Pan (performed 1904; rev 1928).

LOST RACES For "The Eye of Istar" read "The Eye of Ishtar".

LOVE Aphrodite was published in 1895, not 1900.

LOVECRAFT, H.P. Sonia Greene lived 1883-1972. C.M. Eddy lived 1896-1967.

The legend about "The Loved Dead" seems to have been embellished richly over the years: certainly that issue of WT was banned from many newsstands and certainly the issue sold out because of the story, but the rest is probably apocryphal.

"The Shadow Out of Time" was not HPL's last finished work; among others, "The Haunter of the Dark" came later, and HPL also extensively revised other tales.

To Further reading add Lovecraft: A Biography (1975) by L. Sprague DE CAMP, H.P. Lovecraft: A Life (1996) by S.T. JOSHI, and Howard Phillips Lovecraft: Dreamer on the Nightside (1975) by Frank Belknap LONG.

LOWDER, JAMES JL is not exclusively a TSR writer.